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Lora mimarisinden bahsettik , teknik inceleme ile ilgili detaylarımıza devam edelim

Lora mimarisi içerisinde paket yapsınıdan bahsetmeden önce haberleşmenin ne şekilde geliştiğine bir göz atalım .

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Lora mimarisi içerisinde bir önceki yazımızda da bahsettiğimiz üzere Lora EndPoint cihazları haberleşme işlemini LoRa Düşük frekans mimarisinde pil kullanarak iletişim gerçekleştirdiği için paketleri enerji ile beslenen Lora Gateway ‘lere (LoRaWAN) cihazlarına aktarmaktadır .

LoRaWAN Gateway’lerinde küçük paketler IP Paketlerine dönüşerek artık birazdaha büyük bir Network paketi haline gelmektedir . ama burada bir sakınca yok çünkü bir LoRaWAN gateway’ina binlerce cihaz veri gönderebilmekte ve bunları alıp Server’a aktarması için Gateway ‘in 10 KM lik bir alanda 3 adet olması (Coğrafi duruma göre farklılık gösterebilir ) yeterli olacaktır .

Binlerce cihaza enerji yetiştirmek gibi bir sorunumuz olmadığı için LoRaWAN Gateway’ıimizi şebeke yada Solar sistemler ile enerji sağlayabiliriz . ( yaklaşık tüketimi 10Watt ) civarında olan bu Gateway Cihazları için astronomik enerji ihtiyacı bulunmamaktadır.

Endpoint Cihazlardan gelen bu data paketlerini LoRaWAN gatewaylerinde belirlemiş olduğumuz CloudSunuculara 3G /4G / Ethernet / Wifi gibi çözümler ile ulaştırılması mümkündür.

LoRa paketleri çok küçük olduğu için sunucularda çok hızlı işlenebilen saklanabilen verilerdir. Gelen paketler için bir cevap dönülmesi gerekiyor ise bu aşamada uygun fiziksel haberleşme mimarisine göre dönüş sağlanabilmektedir.

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Lora EndPoint ( Uç birimleri ) den LoraWAN gateway ‘e doğru giden datalara Uplink , UpStream

LoRaWAN Gatewaylerden LoRa EndPointlere doğru giden datalarada Downlink – DownStream olarak isimlendirilmektedir.

LoRa Mimarisinin bir diğer güzel avantajı ise ortak bir protokol olduğu için rekabet çok fazla ve rekabete ayak uydurabilmek için ise birçok üretici LoraWAN gateway ‘i en iyi şekilde üretmek için çabalamaktadır.

LoraWAN Gateway ‘ler IP Network’une birden fazla haberleşme teknolojisi ile bağlı olabilmektedir.

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Lora Haberleşme Yapısı olarak 4 Katmandan oluşmaktadır .

En Alt katman – RF ( Radyo Frekans Katmanıdır )

Hemen üzerinde LoRA katmanı (Fiziksel katman olarak gerçekleşmektedir ve bu katmanda Radyo ve Modülasyon süreçinin gerçekleştiği alandır .

Bir üst Katman ise Meda Access Control ( MAC ) Katmanıdır .bu katman asıl işi yani LoRa RF datalarının işlenip uygulama (Application ) katmanına aktarıması ile ilgili rolü oynamaktadır .Class A,B,C bu katmanda veri tipinin ne şekilde haberleşeceği belirlenmektedir .ve bu modülasyon katmanı içinde de uygulama katmanı oluşturarak dilerseniz Sınıflandırmayı tekrar dizayn edebilirsiniz .

Ve en üst katman ise Application Layer ‘dir .bu katmanın içerisinde Sınıflandırma dizayn edilebilmekte ve LoRa endpoint içerisinde LoraWAN’ üzerinden sunucuya gönderilecek bilgilerin dizaynı gerçekleştirilebilmektedir.

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LoRa ‘ni diğer IoT haberleşme mimarilerinden üstün olan özelliği ise adaptive data rates ‘e sahip olmasıdır.

Ne anlama gelir Adaptive Data Rate , Lora EndPoint Cihazı LoraWAN ‘a ne kadar yakın ise çıkış gücünü o kadar düşürmekte ve daha geniş bitrate ile veri aktarımı sağlayabilmektedir. aynı zamanda da çıkış gücünü düşürüp optimize etmesi hem bataryanın süresini uzatmakta hemde Interfere olması durumunu azaltmaktadır .

Yakın gelecekte su sebiline kadar her yerde bu cihazın olacağını düşünürsek interference büyük bir sorun ve bu “Adaptive Data Rates” tekniği sayesinde LoRa bu sıkıntıdan en az etkilenecek teknoloji olarak görünmektedir.

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Asıl temel konu ise bu haberleşmenin güvenliğinin nasıl sağlanabildiği konusudur .
Bu aşamada birçok olayı fiziksel katmandan başlayarak Lora Endpoint ile uygulama arsında AES 128 şifrelemesi ile gerçekleştirmektedir.

Bu Mimarının tamamı için 2 farklı şifreleme modeli ile hareket gerçekleştirilmektedir.

Bunlardan birisi Ağ güvenliğinin sağlanabilmesi için diğeri ise Uygulama katmanının güvenliği için dizayn edilmiştir.

  • Ağ güvenliğinin oluşturulması aşamasında 128Bitlik benzersiz bir ağ oturum anahtarı oluşturumaktadır.
  • ikinci kısım ise AES128 bit şifreleme ile birlikte uygulama katmanında dizayn edilmiştir.

tüm haberleşme süresince her iki anahtarın da eşleşmesi sonrasında verinin doğruluğu kabul edilmekte çalışma sağlanmaktadır.

bir diğer bahsedilmesi gereken konu ise duty-cycle ‘dir . bu bir lora endpoint ‘in hangi aralıklar ile veri gönderebileceğini belirlemektedir. bu süre EU868 normlarında Saatte %1 oranında yani yaklaşık 36sn’de bir veri gönderimi yapabilceği anlamını taşımaktadır. aynı zamanda duty-cycle ‘da en fazla veri gönderim süresi ise 400ms ile sınırlıdır. yani en fazla saniyenin yarısından daha az bir sürede veri gönderimi yapabilmektedir .

LoRa haberleşmesinde esas dikkate alınan husus makinaların ,sensörlerin haberleşmesi esasına göre düşünülerek tasarlanmış bir protokoldür.

Lora Endpoint cihazlarında 2 yönlü haberleşme (Class C ) kullanımı durumunda Lora EndPoint belirtilmiş olan sürelerde uyanarak kendisi için gönderilen bir paket var mı onu dinleyip tekrar uykuya geçmektedir. Class C modeli en fazla enerji harcayan modeldir. ve verimli kullanımı amacı ile bu dinleme süresi uygulama katmanında belirlenerek pil ömrü ayarlanabilmektedir.

Bu haberleşmenin tamamı için GPS saati kullanılamakta ve tüm katmanlar bu saat kıstasına göre haberleşmesi programlanmaktadır .

Lora haberleşme teknolojisinin veri aktarımı düşük olduğu için kullanılacak olan haberleşme ihtiyacına göre uygun band seçimi yapılması error correction ‘u azaltacak ve onbinlerce cihazın yönetimi ve koordinasyonu çok daha başarılı olacaktır.

LoraWAN ürünleri 8 tane ana kanal ( 250bps ile 5.5kpbs arasında veri aktarımı yapabilmektedir. bu 8 kanal dışında 2 kanal daha bulunmaktadır bu kanallar 11kpbs ve 50kbps veri hızına sahip FSK kanalı olarak isimlendirilen 2 kanalı daha bulunmaktadır.

Terminoloji olarak çok düşük veri miktarları ile çalışmakta olan bu kanallarda ar-ge firmaları tarafından fotograf transferleri ‘de denenmiş çalışmalardır. bunu sağlayabilmek için örneğin 100kb lık bir veriyi 25-30 farklı parçada parçalayarak göndermekte ve sonrasında karşı tarafta bu parçaları birleştirilerek tekrar fotograf birleştirilmektedir.

Bu boyutlar geçmişteki 14400bps ‘lik pstn modellerin çalışma mimarisini karşımıza getirmiyor değil .

Yazımı burada sonlandırmadan önce ülke olarak bu konuda yeni yeni çalışmalara başlamış olmamız geleceğe dair projelerde geciktiğimiz anlamını taşımamaktadır.

Dünyada birçok ülkede yaygın şekilde kullanılan LoRa haberleşmesi için backbone operatörleri mevcut.

ülkemiz henüz bu kapsama alanına dahil değil ama hızla dahil olması için bizlerde elimizden geleni yapmaya çalışacağız .

aşağıda haritada dünyadaki kapsama alanı ile ilgili fikir sahibi olabilirsiniz.

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